Non vector borne transmission of Zika virus. A systematic review
There is evidence that non-vector-borne Zika Virus (ZIKV) transmission plays a role in the spread of ZIKV and has great societal impact.
ZIKV is transmitted via the bite of the mosquito, however non vector borne transmission, including intra uterine mother to child transmission has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this review is to evaluate all research findings about non arthropod-borne routes of ZIKV transmission. This review identified 24 articles which focused on possible foetal transmission and neonatal transmission, 15 contain information on ZIKV and urine, 10 relate to sexual transmission and ZIKV and semen, 8 ZIKV in saliva or nasopharyngeal swabs, 5 ZIKV detected in blood products, 2 in breastmilk and 1 regards a case of potential ZIKV through monkey bite. Zika virus RNA has been detected in amniotic fluid, breast milk, seminal fluid, saliva, urine and blood. Semen and blood products have proved to be infectious. Male-to-female and male-to-male ZIKV transmission is documented. Results are contradictory for the infectiousness of breast milk and urine. Data on saliva, animal bites, transplantation, needle stick injury and laboratory work are inconclusive.