A rapid review of personal protective measures for preventing Zika virus infection among pregnant women
Although definitive data is lacking, insecticide-treated nets and mosquito repellents may be considered safe and potentially effective measures for preventing ZIKV infection during pregnancy.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV is predominantly transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitos, however interhuman transmission has been documented. Some complications of infection are fetal microcephaly as well as malformations after maternal infection during pregnancy. Given that population-level vector control measures are difficult to implement and sustain, personal protective measures can be also helpful preventing ZIKV infection. This rapid review aimed to assess the effectiveness, efficacy, and safety of personal protective measures for preventing Aedes spp.mosquito bites and/or related arbovirus infections among pregnant women. A total of 17 studies were reviewed. Findings suggest that mosquito repellents (DEET, Icaridin/picaridin,and IR3535) were effective for preventing Aedes spp. bites. However, these repellents were not evaluated regarding preventing arbovirus infections. Citriodora extracts provided low efficacy, but permethrin and deltamethrin treated curtains were considered effective in reducing the incidence of dengue. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects from the in vitro and animal studies, but DEET and permethrin were tested in clinical trials with pregnant women and were considered safe.