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Interventions for impetigo

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There is good evidence that topical mupirocin and topical fusidic acid are equally, or more, effective than oral treatment. Due to the lack of studies in people with extensive impetigo, it is unclear if oral antibiotics are superior to topical antibiotics in …

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Interventions for treating scabies

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On the basis of the available evidence from randomized controlled trials, topical permethrin appears to be the most effective treatment for scabies. Ivermectin appears to be an effective oral treatment, but in many countries it is not licensed for this indication.
Scabies is …

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Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

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It is not possible to compare the effectiveness of currently used vaccines in preventing clinical disease as only one of three vaccines has been directly investigated for effectiveness in an RCT.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease of the central nervous system with …

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Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

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Ivermectin can prevent damage to the front of the eye but its effectiveness in preventing blindness remains uncertain.
Onchocerciasis causes severe itching and thickening of the skin, and damages structures at the front and back of the eye. It also affects the nerve …

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Corticosteroids for dengue infection

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There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of corticosteroids in managing dengue shock syndrome. As corticosteroids can potentially do harm, clinicians should not use them unless they are participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing corticosteroids with placebo.
Dengue virus is …

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Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever

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The licensed Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are efficacious. The new and unlicensed Vi-rEPA vaccine is as efficacious and may confer longer immunity.
Two typhoid vaccines are commercially available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral), but neither is used routinely. Other vaccines, such …

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Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

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Trials were small and methodological quality varied. In adults, fluoroquinolones may be better for reducing clinical relapse rates compared to chloramphenicol. Data are limited for other comparisons, particularly in children.
Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever), …

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Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery

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We recommend the use of antibiotics for moderate to severe Shigella dysentery. The choice of antibiotic to use as first line against Shigella dysentery should be governed by periodically updated local antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Shigella isolates. Other supportive and preventive measures …

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Drugs for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

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The available evidence supports single dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg as standard treatment for S. mansoni infection as recommended by the WHO. Oxamniquine, a largely discarded alternative, appears efficacious and production and distribution should continue to ease selective pressure on praziquantel. However, …

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Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

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Praziquantel and metrifonate are effective treatments for urinary schistosomiasis and have few adverse events. Metrifonate requires multiple administrations and is therefore operationally less convenient in community-based control programmes. Evidence on the artemisinin derivatives is currently inconclusive, and further research is warranted on …

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