» Person groups

Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia

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55 studies of predominantly low quality suggest that chlorpromazine reduces relapse and improves mental health, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are side effects of chlorpromazine associated with its use and its use should be judicious.
The main treatment for …

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Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis

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The addition of an aminoglycoside to a beta lactam does not improve the clinical efficacy achieved with the beta lactam alone. However, the combination therapy of an aminoglycoside and a beta lactam was associated with an increased risk of renal damage and …

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Intermittent versus daily therapy for treating tuberculosis in children

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Evidence from four randomised trials was insufficient to determine that the use of daily drug treatment was more effective than intermittent (twice- or thrice-weekly) treatment for children with tuberculosis.
Childhood tuberculosis is a neglected global public health problem. Rifampicin-containing drugs given daily for …

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Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

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No evidence was found to investigate whether vitamin A can prevent blindness in children infected with measles.
Annually 500,000 children become blind worldwide, 75% of them living in low-income countries. Measles infection in children has been associated with vitamin A deficiency and …

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Mass drug administration for malaria

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Administration of antimalarial drugs to whole populations (mass drug administration) can reduce the initial (6 month) risk of malaria-specific outcomes, but few studies found that this effect was sustained. However, adverse events were inadequately addressed in these studies.
Malaria is the most …

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Willingness of health care personnel to work in a disaster: an integrative review of the literature

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There are many gaps in the evidence around the willingness of health care personnel to work during a disaster, e.g. influence of demographics, knowledge and competency of staff. ¬†However, some evidence exist that there is a willingness to work that can be …

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A consensus-based educational framework and competency set for the discipline of disaster medicine and public health preparedness

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As little effort has been devoted to the integration of competencies across health specialties, this expert group developed a consensus educational framework and competency set from which educators could devise learning objectives and curricula tailored to fit the needs of all health …

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Disaster and perinatal health: a systematic review

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This was a systematic review of 49 peer-reviewed studies on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period. The identification of women at high risk and who may be more vulnerable, in particular in respect to mental health, after a …

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Dilute versus full strength formula in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants

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The available evidence on the reduction in time taken for infants to attain an adequate energy intake as a result of use of dilute formula is based on three small low quality studies. No evidence was reported on outcomes such as gastrointestinal …

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Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children

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There is some evidence to support the use of alternating and combination therapy compared with monotherapy alone at reducing temperatures in children with a fever. However, on the outcome of child discomfort, the evidence still remains unsatisfactory. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence …

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