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Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever

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The licensed Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are efficacious. The new and unlicensed Vi-rEPA vaccine is as efficacious and may confer longer immunity.
Two typhoid vaccines are commercially available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral), but neither is used routinely. Other vaccines, such …

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Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

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Trials were small and methodological quality varied. In adults, fluoroquinolones may be better for reducing clinical relapse rates compared to chloramphenicol. Data are limited for other comparisons, particularly in children.
Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever), …

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Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery

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We recommend the use of antibiotics for moderate to severe Shigella dysentery. The choice of antibiotic to use as first line against Shigella dysentery should be governed by periodically updated local antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Shigella isolates. Other supportive and preventive measures …

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Drugs for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

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The available evidence supports single dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg as standard treatment for S. mansoni infection as recommended by the WHO. Oxamniquine, a largely discarded alternative, appears efficacious and production and distribution should continue to ease selective pressure on praziquantel. However, …

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Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease

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It is expected that salmonella vaccines may be useful in people with sickle cell disease, especially in resource-poor settings where the majority of those who suffer from the condition are found. Unfortunately, there are no randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and …

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Antimicrobials for treating symptomatic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection

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There appears to be no evidence of a clinical benefit of antibiotic therapy in otherwise healthy children and adults with non-severe salmonella diarrhoea. Antibiotics appear to increase adverse effects and they also tend to prolong salmonella detection in stools.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis appears to …

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Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

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Immunoglobulins seem effective for preventing hepatitis A in both children and adults. However, the evidence, on which the conclusion is based, is not strong as the included trials appear to have risk of bias and their number is insufficient.
Hepatitis A is a …

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Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)

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Injected cholera vaccines appear to be safe and relatively more effective than usually realized. Protection against cholera persists for up to two years following a single dose of vaccine, and for three years with an annual booster. However, they have been superseded …

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Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

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In people with cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310 [90 mmol/L of sodium, 20 mmol/L of potassium, 80 mmol/L of chloride, 10 mmol/L of citrate, and 111 mmol/L of glucose, with a total …

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Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Polymer-based ORS shows some advantages compared to ORS ≥ 310 [the original ORS was based on glucose and had an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L] for treating all-cause diarrhoea, and in diarrhoea caused by cholera. Comparisons favoured the polymer-based ORS over ORS …

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