Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

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Existing evidence does not justify vitamin C supplementation during pregnancy. Additional studies are needed to confirm positive effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on infant birthweight and other outcomes. While vitamin B12 supplementation may reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the offspring based on theoretical considerations, research is needed to support this hypothesis.

Vitamins B6, B12 and C are important to maternal and fetal outcomes during gestation. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of B6, B12 and C interventions during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health and nutrition outcomes. Meta-analyses was conducted where at least three trials were found for outcomes. Tailored GRADE criteria was used to assess the quality of included trials for bias. Results found vitamin B6 supplementation had a significant positive effect on birthweight. Vitamin C, or C combined with E, interventions were shown to increase the risk of pregnancy related hypertension and did not reduce incidences of pre-eclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, or other adverse pregnancy outcomes. No significant results were found for the effect of B6 or C interventions on other neonatal outcomes. No intervention trials were found for B12 supplementation. A gap in evidence and research on the effects of B6, B12 and C supplementation during pregnancy was observed.

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