Midlevel dry intrusions as a factor in tornado outbreaks associated with landfalling tropical cyclones from the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

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Forecaster vigilance should be heightened when midlevel dry intrusions are observed. There is a clear link between the presence of a dry intrusion and a tornado outbreak.

This review examines historical tornado outbreak cases in order to provide an improved understanding of the role mid-level dry intrusions play in altering the thermodynamic structure of the tropical cyclone environment. 13 outbreak cases (defined as storms producing 20 or more tornadoes) were identified. 11 of these cases offer clear evidence of a dry intrusion at midlevels over the outbreak area.

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