Resources

Evidence  Aid, along with partners (including the International Rescue Committee (USA) and Cochrane), has assessed published systematic reviews. Those identified as being of relevance to natural disasters, humanitarian crises or major healthcare emergencies, that include health outcomes, are listed below with a summary of the review before linking to the full article. Where indicated (e.g. [ES] for Spanish), the summaries are available in other languages. These translations are done by volunteers (some through Translators Without Borders) and include: Cynthia Gandeborn, Astrid Walter Medina and Teresa Pradera.

There are also five disaster-specific Special Collections. Three are available through the Cochrane Library  for the topics – Burns; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; and Flooding and Poor Water Sanitation (please note that these Special Collections are not searchable and do not include all the systematic reviews that are listed below). Four Special Collections are available directly from the Evidence Aid website – Windstorms,  Earthquakes, Ebola and The Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe.

Acute traumatic stress syndrome (early): Treatment

Early psychological interventions to treat acute traumatic stress symptoms

Anaesthesia

Anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery in adults[ES]

Anaesthesia for treating distal radial fracture in adults[ES]

Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children[ES]

Pulse oximetry for perioperative monitoring[ES]

Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults[ES]

Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for axillary brachial plexus block for hand, wrist or forearm surgery in adults[ES]

Burns: nutrition and supplementation

Early versus delayed enteral nutrition support for burn injuries[ES]

High-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat versus low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat enteral feeds for burns[ES]

Nutritional support for critically ill children[ES]

Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults[ES]

Burns: prevention

Community-based interventions for the prevention of burns and scalds in children[ES]

Educational interventions for the prevention of eye injuries[ES]

Home safety education and provision of safety equipment for injury prevention[ES]

Interventions for preventing injuries in problem drinkers[ES]

Interventions for promoting smoke alarm ownership and function[ES]

Modification of the home environment for the reduction of injuries[ES]

Burns: systemic treatment

Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)[ES]

Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing burn wound infection[ES]

Antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce respiratory tract infections and mortality in adults receiving intensive care[ES]

Antithrombin III for critically ill patients[ES]

Human albumin solution for resuscitation and volume expansion in critically ill patients[ES]

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for thermal burns[ES]

Hypertonic versus near isotonic crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients[ES]

Intravenous lidocaine for the treatment of background or procedural burn pain / [ES]

Interventions for treating phosphorus burns[ES]

Burns: treatment

Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds / [ES]

Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns / [ES]

Honey as a topical treatment for wounds / [ES]

Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention / [ES]

Topical negative pressure (TNP) for partial thickness burns / [ES]

Topical silver for preventing wound infection / [ES]

Topical silver for treating infected wounds / [ES]

Topical treatment for facial burns / [ES]

Cash-based approaches

Cash-based approaches in humanitarian emergencies / [ES]

Unconditional cash transfers for assistance in humanitarian disasters: effect on use of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries / [ES]

Chest infections

Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in adult outpatients

Antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia in children

Antibiotics for preventing suppurative complications from undifferentiated acute respiratory infections in children under five years of age

Corticosteroids for pneumonia

Intermittent versus daily therapy for treating tuberculosis in children

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses

Zinc supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children 2 to 59 months of age

Child health and nutrition

Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children

Community-based supplementary feeding for promoting the growth of children under five years of age in low and middle income countries

Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged to three months to five years

Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

Intermittent versus daily therapy for treating tuberculosis in children

Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

Ready-to-use therapeutic food for home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children from six months to five years of age

Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

Specially formulated foods for treating children with moderate malnutrition in low and middle income countries

Zinc supplementation for preventing mortality, morbidity, and growth failure in children aged 6 months to 12 years of age

Diarrhoea prevention: water quality and hand washing

Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea

Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea

Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

Diarrhoea management: oral rehydration solution (ORS)

Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children

Diarrhoea treatment: zinc and probiotics

Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea

Probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children

Disability and Rehabilitation

Disability and Health Related Rehabilitation in International Disaster Relief

Medical rehabilitation in natural disasters: a systematic review

Medical rehabilitation of spinal cord injury following earthquakes in rehabilitation resource-scarce settings: implications for disaster research

Participation and quality of life outcomes among individuals with earthquake-related physical disability: A systematic review

Ebola

Comparison of routes for achieving parenteral access with a focus on the management of patients with Ebola virus disease

Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease

Isotonic versus hypotonic solutions for maintenance intravenous fluid administration in children

Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff

Environmental health

Are energy access interventions within humanitarian relief an effective tool for improving the health, safety and livelihoods of beneficiaries, while also having wider environmental benefits?

Fracture management

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures

Antibiotics for preventing infection in open limb fractures

Bone grafts and bone substitutes for treating distal radial fractures in adults

Closed reduction methods for treating distal radial fractures in adults

Condylocephalic nails versus extramedullary implants for extracapsular hip fractures

Conservative interventions for treating distal radial fractures in adults

Conservative versus operative treatment for hip fractures in adults

Different methods of external fixation for treating distal radial fractures in adults

Dynamic compression plating versus locked intramedullary nailing for humeral shaft fractures in adults

Early mobilisation for elbow fractures in adults

External fixation versus conservative treatment for distal radial fractures in adults

Extramedullary fixation implants and external fixators for extracapsular hip fractures in adults

Internal fixation implants for intracapsular hip fractures in adults

Interventions for isolated diaphyseal fractures of the ulna in adults

Interventions for treating ankle fractures in children

Interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents

Interventions for treating fractures of the distal femur in adults

Interventions for treating fractures of the patella in adults

Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults (updated)

Intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures in adults

Nerve blocks for initial pain management of femoral fractures in children

Osteotomy, compression and other modifications of surgical techniques for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures

Percutaneous pinning for treating distal radial fractures in adults

Perioperative fluid volume optimization following proximal femoral fracture (hip fracture)

Pin site care for preventing infections associated with external bone fixators and pins

Pre-operative traction for hip fractures in adults

Replacement arthroplasty versus internal fixation for extracapsular hip fractures in adults

Surgical approaches and ancillary techniques for internal fixation of intracapsular proximal femoral fractures

Surgical fixation methods for tibial plateau fractures

Surgical interventions for diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna in children

Surgical interventions for treating distal humeral fractures in adults

Surgical interventions for treating distal tibial metaphyseal fractures in adults

Surgical versus conservative interventions for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures

Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating ankle fractures in adults

Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating fractures of the middle third of the clavicle

Surgical versus non-surgical interventions for treating humeral shaft fractures in adults

Ultrasound and shockwave therapy for acute fractures in adults

Human resources for health

A consensus-based educational framework and competency set for the discipline of disaster medicine and public health preparedness

Coordinating the Provision of Health Services in Humanitarian Crises: a Systematic Review of Suggested Models

Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

Disaster-Driven Evacuation and Medication Loss: a Systematic Literature Review

Disaster risk communication

Effectiveness of mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises

Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases

Performance Assessment of Communicable Disease Surveillance in Disasters

The physical health status, service utilisation and barriers to accessing care for asylum seekers residing in the community

Social determinants of mid- to long-term disaster impacts on health

Willingness of health care personnel to work in a disaster: an integrative review of the literature

Malaria

Malaria Cochrane Special Collection (Special Collections bring together selected Cochrane Systematic Reviews and other external sources to provide a useful evidence overview on an important healthcare topic and are freely accessible.)

Mass drug administration for malaria

Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

Mental health and migration

A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants

Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

The impact of detention on the health of asylum seekers

Neonatal health

Chlorhexidine skin or cord care for prevention of mortality and infections in neonates

Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants

Dilute versus full strength formula in exclusively formula-fed preterm or low birth weight infants

Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birth weight infants

Nasal versus oral route for placing feeding tubes in preterm or low birth weight infants

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises

Occupational health

Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses

Devices for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel

Blunt versus sharp suture needles for preventing percutaneous exposure incidents in surgical staff

Gloves, extra gloves or special types of gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries in healthcare personnel

Physical trauma (excluding fractures)

Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury

Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients

Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury

Damage control surgery for abdominal trauma

Gangliosides for acute spinal cord injury

Helicopter emergency medical services for adults with major trauma

Hypothermia for traumatic head injury

Interventions for treating acute elbow dislocations in adults

Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury

Primary (immediate) closure versus delayed closure for non-bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma

Psychological treatment for anxiety in people with traumatic brain injury

Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of disability following traumatic physical injury

Spinal fixation surgery for acute traumatic spinal cord injury

Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients

Spinal injuries centres (SICs) for acute traumatic spinal cord injury

Steroids for acute spinal cord injury

Surgical versus non-surgical management of abdominal injury

Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute anterior shoulder dislocation

Tissue adhesives for traumatic lacerations in children and adults

Tranexamic acid for reducing mortality in emergency and urgent surgery

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Combined psychological and pharmacological interventions

Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: prevention

Multiple session early psychological interventions for the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder

Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: sports and games

Sports and games for post-traumatic stress disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: treatment

Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder

How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8?

Interventions to Reduce Distress in Adult Victims of Sexual Violence and Rape

Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in resource poor settings

Psychological treatment of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

Psychosocial interventions for prevention of psychological disorders in law enforcement officers

Psychological, social and welfare interventions for psychological health and well-being of torture survivors

Pregnancy and peri-natal health

A systematic review of refugee women’s reproductive health

Disaster and perinatal health: a systematic review

Psychological First Aid

A Systematic Literature Search on Psychological First Aid: Lack of Evidence to Develop Guidelines

Renal

Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia

Interventions for protecting renal function in the perioperative period

Tidal versus other forms of peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury

Schizophrenia

Chlorpromazine versus placebo for schizophrenia

Sepsis

Beta lactam antibiotic monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside antibiotic combination therapy for sepsis

Sexual and Reproductive Health (including Sexual Violence)

Systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health interventions in humanitarian crises

What is the evidence of the impact of initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict zones and other humanitarian crises in lower and middle-income countries?

Skin diseases caused by long-term exposure to water

Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot

Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot

Skin, eye, and louse-borne diseases that can occur when there is a lack of water for personal hygiene

Antibiotics for trachoma

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus

Antibiotics versus placebo for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

Environmental sanitary interventions for preventing active trachoma

Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma

Interventions for impetigo

Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies

Interventions for trachoma trichiasis

Interventions for treating scabies

Social media and health

Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management

Treatment of scars

Silicon gel sheeting for preventing and treating hypertrophic and keloid scars

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever

Tuberculosis

Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

Water-related diseases caused by faecal pollution: sorted by disease

Antiamoebic drugs for treating amoebic colitis

Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery

Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections

Drugs for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis

Image-guided percutaneous procedure plus metronidazole versus metronidazole alone for uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess

Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)

Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease

Water-related diseases caused by water-based insect vectors

Corticosteroids for treating dengue shock syndrome

Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

Mass drug administration for malaria

Rapid diagnostic tests versus clinical diagnosis for managing people with fever in malaria endemic settings

See the World Malaria Day Special Collection.

Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

Water-related diseases caused by urine of certain mammals

Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

The Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Interventions on Health Outcomes in Humanitarian Crises

Wound management

Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds

Debridement for surgical wounds

Early versus delayed dressing removal after primary closure of clean and clean-contaminated surgical wounds

Negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts and surgical wounds healing by primary intention

Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions

Water for wound cleansing

Other Resources

Allocation of Scarce Resources in Mass Casualty Events published by AHRQ (June 2012)

ALNAP: Responding to Earthquakes: Learning from earthquake relief and recovery operations

ALNAP: Responding to Urban Disasters: Learning from previous relief and recovery operations

An evidence review of research on health interventions in humanitarian crises (published November 2013): This is a collaborative report from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Harvard School of Public Health and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI).

A Systematic Review of the Health Impacts of Mass Earth Movements (Landslides)

Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves: Gupta S, Carmichael C, Simpson C, Clarke MJ, Allen C, Gao Y et al. Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD009888. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009888.pub2 (published on 11 July 2012).

Effective Healthcare Research Consortium

European Renal Best Practice: Clinical guidelines for the management of kidney crush injuries

Evidence Aid survey article

Landslides: This is a draft chapter from the upcoming book Koenig and Schultz’s Disaster Medicine: Comprehensive Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition, made available as free access for Evidence-Aid.

Impact Evaluation Repository: an index of all published impact evaluations of development interventions. All studies have been screened to ensure they meet 3ie’s inclusion criteria . The summaries of impact evaluations in this repository are written by 3ie’s qualified team of technical consultants.

Impact of Increasing Temperatures on Malaria in the East African Highlands: A Systematic Review

Insufficient Evidence? The quality and use of evidence in humanitarian action. Published February 2014. See pages 40-42 for references to Evidence Aid.

Knowledge as a key resource for health challenges

Malaria control in humanitarian emergencies – An inter-agency field handbook. Second edition. A WHO publication.

The Human Impact of Earthquakes: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

The Human Impact of Floods: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

The Human Impact of Tsunamis: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

The Human Impact of Volcanoes: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

The IFRC’s World Disasters Report: “The World Disasters Report 2013 examines the profound impact of technological innovations on humanitarian action, how humanitarians employ technology in new and creative ways, and what risks and opportunities may emerge as a result of technological innovations.”

World Health Organization Guidance Note on Disabilty and Risk Management