Symptom variation on the trauma symptom checklist for children: a within-scale meta-analytic review
Assessment tools for post-traumatic stress symptoms designed for children and adolescents were largely unavailable prior to the introduction of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The main objective of this within-scale meta-analytic review was to explore the impact of various social determinants on post-traumatic symptoms. Overall, exposure to traumatic events does not automatically result in the development of clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms.
The majority of studies did not report any information on socioeconomic status (SES) and of those that did, the measurements of SES varied, making it difficult to ascertain how traumatic stress symptoms may vary by SES. In victims of sexual abuse, results suggested age was positively associated with increased symptoms on all scales except anger. Additionally, results indicated that ethnic minorities reported fewer depressive symptoms than their European American counterparts. Also, geographical differences accounted for some heterogeneity observed in the mean weighted raw scores for each sub-scale. Nevertheless, there is still a need for further research from high quality population/longitudinal studies on the effects of culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic status on trauma symptoms in youth (8 to 16 years of age).