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Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

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It is not possible to compare the effectiveness of currently used vaccines in preventing clinical disease as only one of three vaccines has been directly investigated for effectiveness in an RCT.
Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease of the central nervous system …

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Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

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Ivermectin can prevent damage to the front of the eye but its effectiveness in preventing blindness remains uncertain.
Onchocerciasis causes severe itching and thickening of the skin, and damages structures at the front and back of the eye. It also affects the …

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Corticosteroids for dengue infection

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There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of corticosteroids in managing dengue shock syndrome. As corticosteroids can potentially do harm, clinicians should not use them unless they are participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing corticosteroids with placebo.
Dengue virus is …

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Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever

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The licensed Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are efficacious in adults and children older than two years in endemic countries. The Vi-rEPA vaccine (which has not been commercialised) is just as efficacious, although data is only available for children. The new …

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Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

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Trials were small and methodological quality varied. In adults, fluoroquinolones may be better for reducing clinical relapse rates compared to chloramphenicol. Data are limited for other comparisons, particularly in children.
Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric …

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Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery

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We recommend the use of antibiotics for moderate to severe Shigella dysentery. The choice of antibiotic to use as first line against Shigella dysentery should be governed by periodically updated local antibiotic sensitivity patterns of Shigella isolates. Other supportive and preventive …

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Drugs for treating Schistosomiasis mansoni infection

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The available evidence supports single dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg as standard treatment for S. mansoni infection as recommended by the WHO. Oxamniquine, a largely discarded alternative, appears efficacious and production and distribution should continue to ease selective pressure on praziquantel. …

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Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease

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It is expected that salmonella vaccines may be useful in people with sickle cell disease, especially in resource-poor settings where the majority of those who suffer from the condition are found. Unfortunately, there are no randomized controlled trials on the efficacy …

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Antimicrobials for treating symptomatic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection

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There appears to be no evidence of a clinical benefit of antibiotic therapy in otherwise healthy children and adults with non-severe salmonella diarrhoea. Antibiotics appear to increase adverse effects and they also tend to prolong salmonella detection in stools.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis appears …

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Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

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Immunoglobulins seem effective for preventing hepatitis A in both children and adults. However, the evidence, on which the conclusion is based, is not strong as the included trials appear to have risk of bias and their number is insufficient.
Hepatitis A is …

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