Coronavirus (COVID-19): Evidence Collection

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Created on 16 March 2020. Last updated 29 May 2020.

The COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic is leading to a rapidly expanding and evolving literature. Evidence Aid is preparing summaries of relevant research, which are available below in English with links to translations in other languages. A ‘NEW’ flag will appear on each review as it is added and remain for 48-72 hours.

This collection includes summaries of systematic reviews that might be relevant to the direct impact of COVID-19 (including reviews of emerging research, as well as existing reviews of relevant interventions) on health and other outcomes, the impact of the COVID-19 response on other conditions, and issues to consider for the recovery period after COVID-19.

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Clinical characterization and management

Additional steroid treatment for patients with influenza who are critically ill: Uncertain whether beneficial or harmful. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in children. Added 2 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Antibiotics for treating pneumonia outside hospital. Added 28 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Antibiotics for treating ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult patients. Added 27 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Assertive community treatment for adults with severe mental illness. Added 13 May 2020.

Asthma patients who are stable have a higher risk of an exacerbation if they stop their low-dose inhaled corticosteroids rather than continuing. Added 7 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Atypical antibiotics alone seem no better for mortality and clinical efficacy than typical antibiotics alone in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Added 19 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Buffered solutions did not reduce mortality compared to 0.9% saline for resuscitation in critically ill adults and children. Added 22 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Added 19 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Chinese medicine for the treatment of SARS. Added 31 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for treating COVID-19: benefits and harms are uncertain. Added 21 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Chloroquine: pre-clinical evidence is sufficient to justify clinical research into its effects for COVID-19. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Clinical features for diagnosing pneumonia among adults in primary care. Added 6 May 2020.

Clinical features of COVID-19 in children and adolescents (search done: 3 March 2020). Added 22 May 2020.

Clinical features of COVID-19 (search done: 10 March 2020). Added 22 May 2020.

Colloids and crystalloids may have similar effects on mortality when used for fluid replacement in critically ill patients. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID‐19: effects are uncertain (search done 23 April 2020). Added 15 May 2020.

Corticosteroids for children and adults with pneumonia. Added 27 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Corticosteroids for patients with a coronavirus infection: potential benefits and harms are uncertain. Added 24 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

CRB-65 rule for predicting the severity of pneumonia. Added 7 May 2020.

NEW Crisis-planning interventions for people with psychotic illness or bipolar disorder. Added 28 May 2020.

CT imaging features of 4121 patients with COVID-19 (search done: 16 March 2020). Added 21 May 2020.

D-dimer is associated with severity of COVID-19. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Daily sedation interruption versus no daily sedation interruption for adults requiring mechanical ventilation: uncertain effects. Added 5 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Diabetic patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of ICU admission and poor short-term outcomes (search done: 25 March 2020). Added 22 May 2020.

Drugs for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critically ill patients. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Early mobilization or active exercise for critically ill ICU patients. Added 19 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Enteral, parenteral nutrition and their combination for adults in the intensive care unit. Added 17 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Exercise rehabilitation following discharge from ICU of adult survivors of critical illness. Added 19 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with acute respiratory failure: Uncertain if it is better or worse than conventional lung support. Added 18 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

High-flow nasal cannulae for respiratory support in adult intensive care patients: insufficient evidence to determine its effects. Added 17 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

High levels of PEEP are not better than low levels for reducing mortality in adult ICU patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI). Added 18 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Honey eases acute cough in children. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Identification of traditional Chinese Medicine syndromes for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Added 21 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Immune-suppressive and immune-stimulating drugs and COVID-19 (search done: before 20 March 2020). Added 26 May 2020.

Immunonutrition with omega-3 fatty acids or antioxidants for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Added 17 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Immunotherapy for COVID-19. Added 27 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Increased greenspace exposure has been shown to reduce stress, stroke, hypertension, asthma and heart disease. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Integration of traditional Chinese medicine with western medicine had some benefits for patients with SARS. Added 2 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions for preventing critical illness polyneuropathy and critical illness myopathy. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions for preventing delirium in adults in an intensive care unit. Added 31 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to contain pandemic influenza transmission. Added 14 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to manage acute malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in low‐and middle‐income countries. Added 27 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in children and adults with sepsis or septic shock. Added 19 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Lopinave/Litonawe (LPV/r) reduced mortality in studies of SARS and MERS: uncertain if it is effective for patients with COVID-19. Added 20 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-trad]  [ZH-simp]

Mechanical ventilation weaning protocols in critically ill adults and children: barriers and facilitators. Added 24 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Mechanical ventilation with a lower tidal volume reduces 28-day mortality in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. Added 19 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Medical approaches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Added 2 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in high-risk pulmonary infections. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may help wean patients off mechanical ventilation. Added 20 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Oral Ribavirin for treating non-influenza respiratory viral infections. Added 30 March 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults: uncertain if they are effective. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults with pneumonia: uncertain if they are effective. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Oxygen supplementation at higher levels for critically ill patients: Uncertain effects but may increase mortality and adverse effects. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Oxygen therapy for critical care of adults with pneumonia. Added 10 May 2020.

Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of delirium in critically ill adults. Added 8 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Physical examination tests for detecting difficult airway management in adult patients. Added 24 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Physical rehabilitation and early mobilization for critically ill adults. Added 19 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Physical rehabilitation for patients with critical illness myopathy and neuropathy: effects are uncertain. Added 10 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Positioning in bed for critically ill adults. Added 9 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation for acute respiratory failure: uncertain if there is an important difference in outcomes. Added 20 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Prone position during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.Added 25 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Recruitment manoeuvres during mechanical ventilation reduce the risk of a critically ill patient dying in the intensive care unit. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Ribavarin was beneficial for patients with SARS and MERS: uncertain if it is effective for patients with COVID-19. Added 20 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-trad]  [ZH-simp]

Semi-recumbent position reduces the risk of clinically suspected VAP in patients on mechanical ventilation, compared to a supine position. Added 24 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Short-course versus prolonged-course antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill adults. Added 22 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia. Added 20 May 2020.

Social prescribing for primary care in the UK: costs and health benefits are uncertain. Added 23 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Tap water that is safe to drink is unlikely to be harmful if used to cleanse acute wounds in adults or children. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Vasopressors for hypotensive shock. Added 17 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Vitamin D supplementation protects against some acute respiratory tract infections. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Weaning protocols reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Health systems and services

Access to primary health care services for persons with disabilities in rural areas. Added 16 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Admission avoidance and early discharge hospital at home might release hospital beds for people with COVID-19. Added 30 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Advanced practice nurses can provide safe and effective primary care. Added 9 May 2020.

Antimicrobial stewardship interventions in the emergency department. Added 26 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Appointment-based medication synchronization. Added 12 May 2020.

Biomathematical models to mitigate fatigue and fatigue-related risks in emergency medical services operations: effects are uncertain. Added 10 May 2020.

Clinical guidelines in the community pharmacy setting. Added 4 May 2020.

Clinical prediction rules in primary care. Added 23 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Co-locating specialty and primary care. Added 7 May 2020.

Community‐based rehabilitation interventions for people with disabilities in low‐and middle‐income countries are effective. Added 28 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp] [ZH-trad]

Community health workers for COVID-19 prevention and control. Added 1 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Community health workers in low- and middle-income countries may be cost-effective in some important areas. Added 30 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Community monitoring interventions to curb corruption and increase access and quality of service delivery in low‐and middle‐income countries. Added 28 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Community paramedicine for the management of urgent, low-acuity illnesses and injuries. Added 14 May 2020.

Community pharmacist services for non‐hospitalised patients. Added 13 May 2020.

Community pharmacy interventions for health promotion improve some health-related behaviours and the quality of life of users of community pharmacies. Added 4 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Computerized clinical decision support systems for primary preventive care. Added 5 May 2020.

Contracting out to improve the use of clinical health services in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Added 20 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Contribution of community-based nurse-led clinics to health care access and patient outcomes. Added 15 May 2020.

Copayment for health care services. Added 9 May 2020.

Costs of health care for influenza-related episodes in high-income countries. Added 4 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Decreasing the rate of avoidable readmissions to acute care hospitals. Added 19 May 2020.

Dental recalls: effects of longer intervals between routine check-ups is uncertain. Added 12 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Differential user fees for primary and secondary care: effects are uncertain. Added 10 May 2020.

Effectiveness of senior doctor triage in enhancing emergency room performance. Added 20 May 2020.

E‐learning for healthcare workers is as effective as face-to-face learning for improving knowledge and skills of healthcare workers. Added 16 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Electronic medical/health records in primary care. Added 2 May 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Electronic prescribing in the ambulatory care setting. Added 7 May 2020.

Emergency department crowding: causes, consequences and solutions. Added 22 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Emergency department visit reduction programs. Added 27 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Extending the scope of practice for allied health professionals may be cost-effective and may improve patient outcomes. Added 29 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Factors associated with the willingness of healthcare workers to work during an influenza public health emergency. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Financial incentives for prescribers: effects are uncertain. Added 8 May 2020.

Formulary restrictions to reduce costs and use of prescription drugs may have unintended adverse consequences. Added 9 May 2020.

General practitioner experiences during infectious disease public health crises. Added 14 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

General practice provider collaborations in England. Added 4 May 2020.

GP co-operatives and walk-in centres to reduce attendance at emergency departments. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Healthcare workers’ perceptions of risk and use of coping strategies for emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Added 9 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Healthcare workers’ willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Added 1 April 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Health-related lifestyle advice delivered by peer or lay advisors. Added 19 May 2020.

Health sector response in New Zealand to the 2009 influenza pandemic. Added 19 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

High-deductible health plans reduce healthcare cost and use, including use of needed preventive service. Added 9 May 2020.

Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults. Added 28 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Hospital surge capacity during epidemics. Added 18 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Improving psychological outcomes in healthcare employees during an infectious disease outbreak were identified. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Information technology to help with laboratory testing in primary care. Added 24 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Integrated care with indigenous populations in North America. Added 12 May 2020.

Integrated delivery systems for health care in the USA are associated with positive effects on quality of care. Added 10 May 2020.

Integrating health and social care services improves some patient outcomes. Added 19 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Integrating primary health services in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Added 15 May 2020.

Interactive telemedicine. Added 21 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interactive training of healthcare providers for managing life‐threatening emergencies in hospital: effects are uncertain. Added 2 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

International variation in length of primary care consultations. Added 6 May 2020.

Interventions for H1N1 Influenza: cost-effectiveness. Added 4 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to alter the length of consultations with primary care clinicians: effects are uncertain. Added 5 May 2020.

Interventions to decrease emergency department visits by adult frequent users. Added 21 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to help frequent attenders in primary care. Added 22 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to re-direct low-acuity patients from emergency department care: effects are uncertain. Added 22 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to reduce wait times for primary care appointments. Added 8 May 2020.

Managerial supervision to improve primary health care in low- and middle-income countries: effects are uncertain. Added 13 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

mHealth can reduce costs in some areas of health care. Added 1 May 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

mHealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Added 29 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

mHealth projects in Africa improved some aspects of health care. Added 9 May 2020.

Midwife-led care in the United Kingdom and Ireland may be a cost-effective, safe alternative to medical-led care. Added 19 May 2020.

Nurse-initiated medications in the emergency department. Added 13 May 2020.

Nurse-led services are safe and effective in the ambulatory care setting. Added 10 May 2020.

Nurse practitioner services in the emergency department have beneficial effects on quality of care, patient satisfaction and waiting time. Added 22 May 2020.

Nurses as substitutes for doctors in primary care. Added 6 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Patient-mediated interventions to improve the practice of healthcare workers. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services. Added 9 May 2020.

Pay for performance may improve health professionals’ use of tests and treatments. Added 22 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Payment mechanisms for family physicians. Added 19 May 2020.

Payment schemes for remuneration of primary care dentists: effects are uncertain. Added 29 April 2020.   [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Pharmacist-led medication reconciliation after hospital discharge. Added 5 May 2020.

Pharmacist‐provided non‐dispensing services in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Added 10 May 2020.

Pharmacist services provided in general practice clinics. Added 19 May 2020.

Physician assistants can be effective in primary care. Added 12 May 2020.

Preparedness improves surge capacity of hospitals in emergencies and disasters. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Primary care reform in the Canadian health system. Added 26 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Protocols to help with triage of mechanical ventilation for pediatric patients during a pandemic. Added 31 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Quality and outcomes framework for primary care in the United Kingdom. Added 11 May 2020.

Recruitment and retention strategies for primary care doctors. Added 2 May 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Rural outreach programs for medical students. Added 13 May 2020.

Strategies to change organizational culture to improve healthcare performance. Added 4 May 2020.

Structuring of electronic health records. Added 5 May 2020.

Surgical procedures done by general practitioners with specialty interests. Added 5 May 2020.

Task shifting between healthcare workers can reduce health costs. Added 1 May 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Teledentistry: effects are uncertain. Added 22 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Telehealth interventions may decrease hospitalization and length of stay. Added 26 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Telehealth services using real time video communication: economic analyses (search done: June 2009). Added 18 May 2020.

Telemedicine applications in emergency rooms. Added 4 May 2020.

Telemedicine in Japan: economic evaluations. Added 15 May 2020.

Telemedicine interventions in primary care. Added 23 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Telemonitoring for patients with COPD: effects are uncertain. Added 3 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Telephone consultations for general practice. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Telephone follow-up by primary care for patients discharged from hospital. Added 20 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Training and government regulation of private for-profit healthcare providers in low- and middle-income countries may improve quality of care. Added 29 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Use of medical scribes in health care settings. Added 15 May 2020.

Use of mHealth strategies by frontline health workers in low-resource settings. Added 19 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Ward closure to control outbreaks of infectious diseases among hospitalized patients in acute care settings: effects are uncertain. Added 8 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Infection prevention and control, including health care workers’ protection

NEW Aerosol generating procedures and transmission of respiratory infections to healthcare workers. Added 29 May 2020.

Behavioural interventions to promote workers’ use of respiratory protective equipment: no evidence that they have much effect. Added 24 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Chlorhexidine bathing for infection control in critical care patients: Uncertain if it is better than soap and water. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [FR]  [ES]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

NEW Computer device contamination in healthcare settings. Added 27 May 2020.

Education interventions to improve healthcare workers’ adherence to Standard Precautions for the control of health care-associated infections. Added 22 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Gloves, gowns and masks for reducing transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting: lack of evidence on their specific effects. Added 19 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

NEW Gloves’ use by healthcare workers to prevent cross transmission. Added 29 May 2020.

Hand-hygiene interventions reduce illness due to acute respiratory infections in childcare, school and domestic settings in low- and middle-income countries. Added 6 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Healthcare workers’ adherence with infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines for respiratory infectious diseases: barriers and facilitators. Added 21 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people: uncertain if they are effective. Added 23 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

NEW Infection prevention and control in oral healthcare facilities. Added 29 May 2020.

Interventions to improve compliance with hand hygiene practices. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Management of bodies of people who died with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (search done: 26 March 2020). Added 26 May 2020.

N95 respirators and surgical masks for preventing transmission of respiratory infections to healthcare workers. Added 28 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Non-pharmaceutical measures for pandemic influenza in non-healthcare settings: effects are uncertain. Added 18 May 2020.

Personal protective equipment for protecting healthcare staff from highly infectious diseases. Added 16 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Physical interventions to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. Added 16 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [IT]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Preventing virus transmission during the Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Virus (MERS-CoV) outbreak. Added 30 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Preventing virus transmission among healthcare workers during the Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Virus (MERS-CoV) outbreak. Added 30 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [Zh-simp]  [ZH-trad]

School closure during influenza outbreaks. Added 30 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Screening travelers for infectious diseases. Added 3 May 2020.

Transportation and transportation hubs and the propagation of respiratory viruses. Added 30 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Ventilation in the built environment to reduce airborne transmission of infectious agents. Added 30 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Public health interventions

Acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations. Added 11 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well‐being of women who experience intimate partner abuse. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Cash‐based approaches in humanitarian emergencies. Added 18 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Cash transfer programme increase school enrolment in low- and middle-income countries. Added 27 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Dropout prevention and intervention programs for students in primary and secondary schools. Added 29 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Effects of household crowding on mental health. Added 5 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [Zh-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Effects of household crowding on respiratory infectious diseases. Added 5 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [Zh-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Hand cleaning with ash for reducing the spread of viral and bacterial infections: effects are uncertain. Added 29 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low‐ and middle‐income countries. Added 17 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Handwashing promotion targeted at children, on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth infections and behavior change, in low- and middle-income countries: effects are uncertain. Added 15 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions for children, youth, and parents to prevent and reduce cyber or online abuse. Added 17 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Interventions to promote well‐being of children exposed to intimate partner violence. Added 17 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Added 6 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics: cost-effectiveness. Added 9 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Prevention and control of communicable diseases at migrant holding centres. Added 11 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it in COVID-19. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Public perceptions of physical interventions for reducing transmission of respiratory infection. Added 21 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures might help to control COVID-19. Added 8 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Resource use implications of using physical interventions to control or prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. Added 16 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Rinse-free hand washing regimes might reduce illness-related absenteeism among preschool and school children. Added 9 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Risk factors and risk factor cascades for communicable disease outbreaks in complex humanitarian emergencies. Added 15 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

School‐based decision‐making in low‐and middle‐income countries. Added 27 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

School closures to reduce the transmission of influenza. Added 8 May 2020.

School feeding for improving the physical and psychosocial health of disadvantaged students. Added 28 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Training and deployment of lay refugee and internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps. Added 11 April 2020. [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

NEW Video calls for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people (search done 7 April 2020). Added 29 May 2020.

Visiting urban green space exposure has been shown to boost the immune system and mental health, and reduce the risks of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Added 26 March 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions and health outcomes in humanitarian crises. Added 10 April 2020.  [AR]  [ES]  [FR]  [PT]  [ZH-simp]  [ZH-trad]

Acknowledgements: We should like to acknowledge the help and support of the following in this project –

Advisors: Elie Akl, Ashley Agus, Donna Barbisch, Olivia Biermann, Malcolm Brewster, Pamela Catalán Rubio, Mike Clarke, Luis Gabriel Cuervo, Phil Davies, Chris del Mar, Jaime Del Rio, Lelia Duley, Khamis Elessi, Saniya Fakhar, Ronald Flumignan, Judith Glynn, Ruth Hunter, Kim Kilov, Rhona Mijumbi-Deve, Ronald Munatsi, Ngoy Nsenga, Patrick Okwen, Sandy Oliver, Cheow Peng Ooi, Indu Rai, Ludovic Reveiz, Karla Soares-Weiser, Narasimman Swaminathan, David Tovey.

Lead Researchers: Ahmad Firas Khalid (from 30 April), Zbys Fedorowicz (to 30 April), Jiewon Lim and Christine McKee (from 20 April).

Library services/searching: Jo Wood (lead), Nicole Askin, Anna Brown, Obaro Evuarherhe, Helen Fulbright, Dorothy Halfhide, Golo Henning, Bethany McGowan, Jane Pothecary, James Robinson, Farhad Shokraneh, Ruth Suhami, Adam Tocock, John Trevor-Allen, Nishant Tripathi, Alison Turner, Naeem Yar,

Screening: Margaret Anderson (lead), Ciara Keenan, Felix Lambert, Alison Mace, Joanna Przezdziecka-Dolyk, Sravya Pudota, Sinjini Sarkar, TA Ojo Taiwo, Abhijna Vithal Yergolkar.

Communications and translations (for social media): Kristin Carlin, Wong Chun Hoong, Yiyi Jiang, Bushrah Kalakh, Catherine Keys, Epaminondas La Bella, Zhenhui Le, Xiang-Guo Lei, Brian Li, Haishan Li, Man Li, Xiang Li, Victoria Olvera, Sarah Peureux, Alexa Phillips, Rodrigo Torres Castro, Sue Wolstenholme,

Summary writers and support: Hebatullah Abdulazeem, Charles Badu-Boateng, Rachel Beanland, Sirisha Bellamkonda, Alessio Bellato, Amanda Borrow, Lauren Cerruto, Loren De Freitas, Lisa Deiminger, Noah Dixon, Kathleen Dorries, Alastair Dunbar, Caroline Freeman, Rachael Frost, Rocio Fuentes Aspe, Joly Ghanawi, Maddalena Giacomozzi, Saurabh Gupta, Catherine Haynes, Russell He, Catherine Henderson, Rosemary James, Anish Jammu, Chris Jenkins, Sushant Kaushal, Michelle King-Okoye, Sadie Lawes-Wickwar, Simone Lepage, Brian Li, Yuxi Li, Ghazal Mazloumi, Joseph Mitchell, Linda Murray, Helen Nwanosike, Evani Patel, Amanda Perry, Leah Phillips, Vivek Podder, Dimuthu Rathnayake, Jennifer Raven, Isaiah Rayel, Samreen Rizwan, Stephanie Sampson, David Schramm, Hema Sivasubramanian, Sini Skarp, Liz Stovold, Lenny Vasanthan, Vivian Welch, Magdalen Wind-Mozley, Jim Wood, Ruth Yan, Huiling Zhang, Yonggang Zhang,

Categorising and tagging: Liina Haldna, Shona Kirtley, Abi Kirubarajan, Shaun Lee.

Website Support: Jaimu Aderonmu, Ayodele Ayobami, Justyna Chylewska, Antonio Aurelio De Paiva Fagundes, Gabriel Kwok, Kat Timberlake, Nikolett Warner.


This project is funded by the H2H Fund, which is supported by UK aid from the UK government.





This project is supported by Queen’s University, Belfast.



This project is supported by the Campbell Collaboration.




Disclaimer: These summaries have been written by staff and volunteers of Evidence Aid in order to make the content of the original document accessible to decision makers who are searching for the available evidence on the coronavirus (COVID-19) but may not have the time, initially, to read the original report in full. The summaries are not intended as a substitute for the medical advice of physicians, other health workers, professional associations, guideline developers, or national governments and international agencies. If readers of these summaries think that the evidence that is presented within them is relevant to their decision-making they should refer to the content and details of the original article, and the advice and guidelines offered by other sources of expertise, before making decisions. Evidence Aid cannot be held responsible for any decisions made about the coronavirus (COVID-19) on the basis of this summary alone.

Comments (4) Add yours ↓

    Very Nice

    March 31, 2020
  2. the mask

    very nice but should we be wearing protective mask like these ones or will they offer little protection, I know the WHO was due to hold a meeting but I could’nt find any press realise

    April 3, 2020
  3. Elizabeth Christie

    In the terminal stages of pneumococcal pneumonia, which can follow a covid 19 viral pneumonia, malonate is produced. This could be detected and used as a marker for this stage. Malonate is an inhibitor of the Krebs cycle for energy production in cells. It inhibits partially by forming a complex with magnesium. The effects of malonate can be reversed with malate. I suggest giving magnesium malate. I also suggest giving bacillus subtilis as it uses malonate as a substrate to make pyruvate. This is used by the body to make energy. Malonate is a very powerful metabolic poison. It is similar to some slug pellets. They kill by increasing the amount of mucus produced by the slug to such an extent that it dehydrated and dies – unless it gets a lot of water. Similar compounds are made in massive amounts for industry. Bacillus subtilis is made in massive amounts for agriculture and‘healthy bacteria for the gut’. Magnesium malate is sold as a remedy for fibromyalgia.

    April 16, 2020
  4. Elizabeth Christie

    Bacillus subtilis can also make a powerful antifungal antibiotic- Bacillomycin. Seriously ill COVID-19 patients have been found to have a low diversity of gut flora, and may be deficient in bacillus subtilis. They may benefit from a faecal transplant containing this, if unfit to swallow.
    Patients may benefit from any form of magnesium and malate (or malic acid – found in some sour apples and apricots and some other fruits eg. ? blueberry).Malic acid is also in some pastilles for dry mouth.

    April 16, 2020

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