Recommendations for prevention and control for the care of patients with Ebola in health institutions
A review of 14 articles sourced from international databases notes that prevention and control strategies such as standard precaution measures, prevention of contact and droplet spread, and care of medical equipment and materials are essential, along with training for healthcare staff.
This review follows the 2014 outbreak in West Africa, making recommendations (based on articles found up to November 2014) for Brazil. Methods of transmission via people or contaminated objects, and symptoms of the disease, are noted. The need for symptoms to be treated as soon as possible is shown, as well as the risk of transmission to health professionals, other patients and the family. The review notes that both the Brazilian health system and individual health professionals must be prepared, equipped and trained to identify the disease and prevent the spread of infection. Transmission of the virus is directly related to the time and degree of exposure to blood or infectious fluids without personal protective equipment (PPE), and to the severity of disease symptoms. Recommendations include restriction of the number of healthcare staff to the quarantined area, continuing training and psychological support for staff, consistent use of PPE, handwashing and protocols for care. The role of poverty and poor health conditions is also acknowledged.