» Displaced population

Interventions for impetigo

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There is good evidence that topical mupirocin and topical fusidic acid are equally, or more, effective than oral treatment. Due to the lack of studies in people with extensive impetigo, it is unclear if oral antibiotics are superior to topical antibiotics …

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Interventions for treating scabies

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On the basis of the available evidence from randomized controlled trials, topical permethrin appears to be the most effective treatment for scabies. Ivermectin appears to be an effective oral treatment, but in many countries it is not licensed for this indication.
Scabies …

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Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

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In people with cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310 [90 mmol/L of sodium, 20 mmol/L of potassium, 80 mmol/L of chloride, 10 mmol/L of citrate, and 111 mmol/L of glucose, with a …

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Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Polymer-based ORS shows some advantages compared to ORS ≥ 310 [the original ORS was based on glucose and had an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L] for treating all-cause diarrhoea, and in diarrhoea caused by cholera. Comparisons favoured the polymer-based ORS over …

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Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

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Xpert® MTB/RIF used as initial diagnostic test for TB detection in patients suspected of having TB, MDR-TR or HIV-associated TB is sensitive and specific. Compared with smear microscopy, Xpert® MTB/RIF substantially increases TB detection among culture-confirmed cases. Xpert® MTB/RIF may also …

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Surgical versus conservative interventions for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures

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There is insufficient high quality evidence to establish whether surgical or conservative treatment is better for adults with displaced intra-articular calcaneal (heel bone) fracture.
Fractures of the calcaneus (heel bone) comprise up to 2% of all fractures, and are mostly caused by a …

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Water for wound cleansing

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There is no evidence that using potable tap water to cleanse acute wounds in adults increases infection, and there is some evidence that it reduces infection. However, there is not strong evidence that cleansing wounds per se increases healing or reduces …

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Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

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Interventions to promote handwashing, such as targeted education and provision of free soap, improve hand hygiene and reduce diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults living in low- and middle-income countries by about one third. This significant reduction is comparable to the …

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Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea

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This review provides some evidence that interventions to improve excreta disposal are effective in preventing diarrhoeal disease.
Over a third of the world’s population lacks access to improved facilities for the disposal of human excreta, such as a basic pit latrine, a toilet …

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Sports and games for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

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No randomised controlled trials evaluating sports or games to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD were identified. More research is therefore required before a fair assessment can be made of the effectiveness of these interventions for PTSD.
It has been suggested that participation in …

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