» Genitourinary and gynaecologic diseases

Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children

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There were no important clinical differences between oral rehydration therapy and intravenous rehydration therapy for rehydration secondary to acute gastroenteritis in children.
Dehydration associated with gastroenteritis is a serious complication. Dehydration occurs when body water content is reduced causing dry skin, headaches, sunken …

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Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children

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In children admitted to hospital with diarrhoea, reduced osmolarity ORS [total osmolarity ≤ 250 mmol/L with reduced sodium] when compared to WHO standard ORS [90 mmol/L sodium, 111 mmol/L glucose, total osmolarity 311 mmol/L] is associated with fewer unscheduled intravenous fluid infusions, …

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Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

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In people with cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310 [90 mmol/L of sodium, 20 mmol/L of potassium, 80 mmol/L of chloride, 10 mmol/L of citrate, and 111 mmol/L of glucose, with a …

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Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Polymer-based ORS shows some advantages compared to ORS ≥ 310 [the original ORS was based on glucose and had an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L] for treating all-cause diarrhoea, and in diarrhoea caused by cholera. Comparisons favoured the polymer-based ORS over …

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Tidal versus other forms of peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury

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There is insufficient evidence to determine whether tidal peritoneal dialysis is superior to any other mode of peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of patients with acute kidney injury.
Acute kidney injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown …

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Interventions for protecting renal function in the perioperative period

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There is inconclusive evidence for benefits or increased harm on the use of various interventions (including dopamine and analogues, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, erythropoietin, intravenous fluid and atrial natriuretic peptide) for protecting renal function in the perioperative period for patients undergoing surgery. …

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Perioperative fluid volume optimization following proximal femoral fracture

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Limited low quality and weak evidence from randomised controlled trials to support the use of advanced haemodynamic monitoring compared to protocol using standard measures such as CVP for perioperative fluid volume optimisation for patients with proximal femoral fracture exists.   Research findings …

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Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures

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Antibiotic prophylaxis for closed fracture surgery is an effective intervention. Single dose intravenous prophylaxis is effective if the agent used provides tissue levels exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentration over a 12-hour period. If the antibiotic chosen has a short half-life which may …

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Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds

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There is currently an absence of high-quality clinical trial evidence to support the use of Aloe vera topical agents or Aloe vera dressings as treatments for acute and chronic wounds.
Aloe vera is a cactus-like perennial succulent belonging to the Liliaceae family, …

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