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Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years

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In low- and middle-income countries, providing additional food to children aged three months to five years can lead to small gains in weight and height, and moderate increases in haemoglobin. There are also positive impacts on psychomotor development but mixed evidence on …

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Chlorhexidine skin or cord care for prevention of mortality and infections in neonates

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A low-cost antiseptic used to cleanse the cord after birth could help reduce infant death rates in developing countries by 12%. Using chlorhexidine also halved the number of newborn babies that suffered from omphalitis, swelling of the cord stump commonly caused by …

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Handwashing and other hygiene measures

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Frequent handwashing with or without antiseptics reduces the transmission of viral respiratory diseases, such as influenza. It may also have benefits for preventing or slowing the spread of Ebola.
Viral epidemics or pandemics of acute respiratory infections like influenza or severe acute …

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Surgical gloves

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A Cochrane review showing that the use of two pairs of ordinary surgical gloves more than halves the risk of needle stick or sharps injuries, compared to only one pair of gloves.

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Blunt versus sharp suture needles for preventing percutaneous exposure incidents in surgical staff

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A Cochrane review showing that blunt suture needles halve the risk of a needle stick injury, compared to sharp needles.

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Devices for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries caused by needles in healthcare personnel

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A Cochrane review of medical devices designed to reduce the risk of virus transmission through percutaneuous exposure injuries caused by needles.

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Isotonic versus hypotonic solutions for maintenance intravenous fluid administration in children

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A Cochrane review comparing isotonic fluid (containing a sodium concentration similar to plasma) with hypotonic fluid (containing a sodium concentration less than plasma) for maintenance intravenous hydration in children. It found that isotonic fluid reduced the risk of hyponatraemia.

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Comparison of routes for achieving parenteral access with a focus on the management of patients with Ebola Virus Disease

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This new review compares the different ways to give fluids to people in situations where it is impossible to maintain adequate hydration simply by giving fluids orally. Collectively, these alternatives are termed parenteral access. They include getting fluids into a vein (intravenously), …

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The Effectiveness of Disaster Risk Communication: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

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A review of communication interventions relevant to disasters, including infection outbreaks. Interventions associated with increased knowledge of preventive measures include individual and group face-to-face information sessions, telephone calls, delivery of written information, mass media campaigns, mass SMS text messages and games for …

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How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8?

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Interventions can help improve aspects of psychosocial functioning in children. The evidence is strongest for interventions focusing on normalisation.
Some 20 million children are currently victims of armed conflict. Among civilian casualties of war, 90% are children. Evidence …

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