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Antimicrobials for treating symptomatic non-typhoidal Salmonella infection

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There appears to be no evidence of a clinical benefit of antibiotic therapy in otherwise healthy children and adults with non-severe salmonella diarrhoea. Antibiotics appear to increase adverse effects and they also tend to prolong salmonella detection in stools.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis appears …

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Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

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Immunoglobulins seem effective for preventing hepatitis A in both children and adults. However, the evidence, on which the conclusion is based, is not strong as the included trials appear to have risk of bias and their number is insufficient.
Hepatitis A is …

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Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)

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Injected cholera vaccines appear to be safe and relatively more effective than usually realized. Protection against cholera persists for up to two years following a single dose of vaccine, and for three years with an annual booster. However, they have been …

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Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

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In people with cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310 [90 mmol/L of sodium, 20 mmol/L of potassium, 80 mmol/L of chloride, 10 mmol/L of citrate, and 111 mmol/L of glucose, with a …

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Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Polymer-based ORS shows some advantages compared to ORS ≥ 310 [the original ORS was based on glucose and had an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L] for treating all-cause diarrhoea, and in diarrhoea caused by cholera. Comparisons favoured the polymer-based ORS over …

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Image-guided percutaneous procedure plus metronidazole versus metronidazole alone for uncomplicated amoebic liver abscess

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Therapeutic aspiration in addition to metronidazole to hasten clinical or radiologic resolution of uncomplicated amoebic liver abscesses cannot be supported or refuted by the present evidence.
The most common complication of amoebiasis is the formation of a pus-filled mass inside the liver …

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Antiamoebic drugs for treating amoebic colitis

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Tinidazole is more effective in reducing clinical failure compared with metronidazole and has fewer associated adverse events. Combination drug therapy is more effective in reducing parasitological failure compared with metronidazole alone. However, these results are based on trials with poor methodological …

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Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

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Xpert® MTB/RIF used as initial diagnostic test for TB detection in patients suspected of having TB, MDR-TR or HIV-associated TB is sensitive and specific. Compared with smear microscopy, Xpert® MTB/RIF substantially increases TB detection among culture-confirmed cases. Xpert® MTB/RIF may also …

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Tidal versus other forms of peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury

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There is insufficient evidence to determine whether tidal peritoneal dialysis is superior to any other mode of peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of patients with acute kidney injury.
Acute kidney injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown …

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Interventions for protecting renal function in the perioperative period

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There is inconclusive evidence for benefits or increased harm on the use of various interventions (including dopamine and analogues, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, erythropoietin, intravenous fluid and atrial natriuretic peptide) for protecting renal function in the perioperative period for patients undergoing surgery. …

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