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Tidal versus other forms of peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury

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There is insufficient evidence to determine whether tidal peritoneal dialysis is superior to any other mode of peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of patients with acute kidney injury.
Acute kidney injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown …

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Interventions for protecting renal function in the perioperative period

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There is inconclusive evidence for benefits or increased harm on the use of various interventions (including dopamine and analogues, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, erythropoietin, intravenous fluid and atrial natriuretic peptide) for protecting renal function in the perioperative period for patients undergoing surgery. …

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Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia

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Nebulised or inhaled salbutamol, or IV insulin-and-glucose are the first-line therapies for the management of emergency hyperkalaemia that are best supported by the evidence. Their combination may be more effective than either alone, and should be considered when hyperkalaemia is severe. …

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Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for axillary brachial plexus block for hand, wrist or forearm surgery in adults

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There is evidence that multiple injection techniques using nerve stimulation for axillary plexus block produce more effective anaesthesia than either double or single injection techniques. There is insufficient evidence for a significant difference in other outcomes, including safety.
Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary …

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Anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery in adults

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There was insufficient evidence available from trials comparing regional versus general anaesthesia for surgical repair of hip fractures in adults to rule out clinically important differences. Regional anaesthesia may reduce acute postoperative confusion but no conclusions can be drawn for mortality or …

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Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute anterior shoulder dislocation

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Limited evidence supports primary surgery for young people engaged in highly demanding physical activities who have sustained their first acute traumatic shoulder dislocation. There is no evidence available to determine which treatment is better for other patient groups.
Acute anterior shoulder dislocation …

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Interventions for treating acute elbow dislocations in adults

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Overall, there is a lack of evidence to inform clinical decisions for treating acute simple elbow dislocations in adults. Nonetheless, it should be noted that, while weak and inconclusive, the available evidence from a trial comparing surgery versus conservative treatment did …

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Psychological treatment for anxiety in people with traumatic brain injury

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There is some evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for treating acute stress disorder following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and of CBT combined with neurorehabilitation for targeting general anxiety symptomatology in people with mild-to-moderate TBI.
Psychological treatments are …

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Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury

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The increase in mortality with steroids in one trial suggest that steroids should no longer be routinely used in people with traumatic head injury (TBI).
TBI is a leading cause of death and disability. Corticosteroids have been widely used in treating people …

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Hypothermia for traumatic head injury

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There is no evidence that hypothermia is beneficial in the treatment of head injury. Hypothermia should not be used except in the context of a high-quality randomised controlled trial with good allocation concealment.
Hypothermia has been used in the treatment of head …

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