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Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)

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Injected cholera vaccines appear to be safe and relatively more effective than usually realized. Protection against cholera persists for up to two years following a single dose of vaccine, and for three years with an annual booster. However, they have been …

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Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: ≤ 270 mOsm/L solutions vs ≥ 310 mOsm/L solutions

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In people with cholera, ORS ≤ 270 is associated with biochemical hyponatraemia when compared with ORS ≥ 310 [90 mmol/L of sodium, 20 mmol/L of potassium, 80 mmol/L of chloride, 10 mmol/L of citrate, and 111 mmol/L of glucose, with a …

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Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

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Polymer-based ORS shows some advantages compared to ORS ≥ 310 [the original ORS was based on glucose and had an osmolarity of ≥ 310 mOsm/L] for treating all-cause diarrhoea, and in diarrhoea caused by cholera. Comparisons favoured the polymer-based ORS over …

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Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

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Interventions to promote handwashing, such as targeted education and provision of free soap, improve hand hygiene and reduce diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults living in low- and middle-income countries by about one third. This significant reduction is comparable to the …

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Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea

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This review provides some evidence that interventions to improve excreta disposal are effective in preventing diarrhoeal disease.
Over a third of the world’s population lacks access to improved facilities for the disposal of human excreta, such as a basic pit latrine, a toilet …

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Fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)

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Trials were small and methodological quality varied. In adults, fluoroquinolones may be better for reducing clinical relapse rates compared to chloramphenicol. Data are limited for other comparisons, particularly in children.
Fluoroquinolones are recommended as first-line therapy for typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever), …

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Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

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Interventions to improve water quality are generally effective in preventing diarrhoea, and interventions to improve water quality at the household level are more effective than those at the source.
Diarrhoeal diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, especially among young children …

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