» Neonates/infants

Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years

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In low- and middle-income countries, providing additional food to children aged three months to five years can lead to small gains in weight and height, and moderate increases in haemoglobin. There are also positive impacts on psychomotor development but mixed evidence on …

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Chlorhexidine skin or cord care for prevention of mortality and infections in neonates

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A low-cost antiseptic used to cleanse the cord after birth could help reduce infant death rates in developing countries by 12%. Using chlorhexidine also halved the number of newborn babies that suffered from omphalitis, swelling of the cord stump commonly caused by …

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Isotonic versus hypotonic solutions for maintenance intravenous fluid administration in children

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A Cochrane review comparing isotonic fluid (containing a sodium concentration similar to plasma) with hypotonic fluid (containing a sodium concentration less than plasma) for maintenance intravenous hydration in children. It found that isotonic fluid reduced the risk of hyponatraemia.

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Comparison of routes for achieving parenteral access with a focus on the management of patients with Ebola Virus Disease

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This new review compares the different ways to give fluids to people in situations where it is impossible to maintain adequate hydration simply by giving fluids orally. Collectively, these alternatives are termed parenteral access. They include getting fluids into a vein (intravenously), …

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How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8?

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Interventions can help improve aspects of psychosocial functioning in children. The evidence is strongest for interventions focusing on normalisation.
Some 20 million children are currently victims of armed conflict. Among civilian casualties of war, 90% are children. Evidence …

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Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birth weight infants

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There is evidence to support the use of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) as an alternative to neonatal care in low-birth weight infants particularly, in resource limited settings in the reduction of mortality and morbidity rates. However, more evidence to assess efficacy …

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Zinc supplementation for preventing mortality, morbidity, and growth failure in children aged 6 months to 12 years of age

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There is some evidence to support the effectiveness of preventative zinc supplementation particularly, where the risk of zinc deficiency is high. However, more evidence on optimal intervention characteristics such as supplement dose is needed.
Zinc deficiency is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality …

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Antibiotics for preventing suppurative complications from undifferentiated acute respiratory infections in children under five years of age

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There is insufficient evidence from clinical trials on the effectiveness (efficacy and safety) of antibiotics in reducing the risk of otitis or pneumonia in children aged between two and 59 months with undifferentiated acute respiratory infections (ARIs).
ARIs are a group of …

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Ebola virus disease: Key questions and answers concerning water, sanitation and hygiene

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD): Key Questions and Answers Concerning Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WHO 2014): Controlling the hazards from the presence of the Ebola virus in body fluids lies in the separation and containment of all body fluids (including feces and urine). Feces from suspected …

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Intermittent versus daily therapy for treating tuberculosis in children

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Evidence from four randomised trials was insufficient to determine that the use of daily drug treatment was more effective than intermittent (twice- or thrice-weekly) treatment for children with tuberculosis.
Childhood tuberculosis is a neglected global public health problem. Rifampicin-containing drugs given daily for …

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