Treatment of latent Tuberculosis infection in HIV infected persons
Currently available trials do not provide sufficient data to draw firm conclusions about the value of preventive therapy for improving survival in persons infected with HIV.
Most people infected with tuberculosis (TB) never get TB symptoms. This is called latent TB. People infected with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk of getting TB and about 30% of people with HIV who have latent TB will eventually get active TB. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection helps to prevent progression to active disease in HIV-negative populations, but the extent and magnitude of protection associated with preventive therapy in those infected with HIV needs quantifying. The review evaluated 10 trials that were included in the original systematic review (Woldehanna 2004), and two new trials that met the inclusion criteria. The update now includes 12 trials with a total of 8578 randomized participants. Authors found that the risk of developing active TB was reduced when people infected with both HIV and TB used isoniazid. Isoniazid for latent TB is usually taken for six to 12 months, but more research is still needed to show optimal duration of treatment, the best treatment regime for people with HIV, and especially the best regimen in combination with HIV drugs.